LSAT逻辑题考查内容及题型


逻辑推理题主要考查以下推理能力:

    1)进行论证的能力

    2)评价论述的能力

    3)形成或评价行动方案的能力

  按照美国ETS命题人员的说法,逻辑推理题主要考查考生在以下三个方面能否进行有效推理的能力。

  一、论点构建(Argument construction)

  这一方面产问题主要让你去识别或找到:

    (一) 论述的基本结构(The basic structure of an argument)

    (二) 正确得到的结论(Properly drawn conclusion)

    (三) 基于的假设(Underlying assumption)

    (四) 被强有力支持的解释性假说(Well-supported explanatory hypotheses)

    (五) 结构上相似的论点的平行结构(Parallels between structurally similar arguments)

  二、论点评价(Argument evaluation)

  这一方面的问题主要让你在分析既定的论点基础之上去识别:

    (一) 加强或削弱既定论点的因素(Factors that would strengthen, or weaken, the given argument)

    (二) 在进行论述时所犯的推理错误(Reasoning errors committed in making that argument)

    (三) 进行论述所使用的方法(The method by which the argument proceeds)

  三、形成并且评价行动方案(Formulating and evaluating a plan of action)

  这方面的问题主要让你去识别:

    (一) 不同行动方案的相对合适性、有效性或效率(The relative appropriateness, effectiveness, or efficiency of different plans of action)

    (二) 加强或削弱拟议行动方案成功可能的因素(Factors that would strengthen, or weaken, the prospects of success for a proposed plan of action)

    (三) 拟议行动计划所基于的假设(Assumptions underlying a proposed plan of action)

  根据逻辑推理题的考查内容,我们认为熟悉逻辑推理的主要题型对你大有裨益,下面是我们在考试中将遇到的十一类逻辑推理题。

    一、假设(Assumption)

   这类考题主要考查我们识别根据什么前提得出论点的能力,这类题目往往用以下方式:

    二、支持(Support)

   这类考题主要考查我们识别一种附加事实信息支持论点的能力,这类题往往用如下措词:

    Which of the following, if true, would constitute the strongest evidence in support of the claim made above?

    Which of the following, if true, does NOT support the claim that…

    三、反对(Weaken):

    这类考题主要考查我们识别一种附加事实信息反对论点的能力,这类题主要用以下措词:

    Which of the following, if true, would additionally weaken the traditional opinion that…

    The persuasiveness of the claim made above is most weakened by…

    四、评价(Evaluation):

    这类考题主要考查我们评价论点的能力这类题往往用以下方式:

    Which of the following would be most important to know in evaluating the accuracy of the argument above?

    Knowledge of which of the following would be LEAST useful in evaluating the claims made in the passage above?

    五、推断(Inference):

    这类考题主要考查我们评价论点的能力,这类题往往用以下方式:

    It can be inferred from the passage above that the author believes that…

    Which of the following is implied by the passage above?

    From the information above, which of the following can be most reasonably inferred about…

    六、 结论(Conclusion):

    这类考题主要考查我们根据文章中的论据能提出什么合乎逻辑的主张的能力,这类题往往腻和这些方式:

    If the statements above are true, which of the following conclusions can be properly drawn?

    Choose the most logical completion for the following paragraph.

    Which of the following would provide the most logical conclusion for the preceding paragraph?

    The statements in the passage, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?

    七、中心思想:

    这类题主要考查我们理解文章要点的能力,这类题往往用如下措词:

    The statement cited above conveys which of the following propositions?

    The passage above emphasizes which of the following points?

    The author in the passage above argues that…

    Which of the following expresses the point the author of the passage above makes?

    八、解释(Explain):

    这类题主要考查我们解释某外现象、结果或缓解某种矛盾的能力,这类题往往用这些方式:

    Which of the following hypotheses, if true, would help resolve the apparent paradox introduced above?

    If all of the statements above are correct, an explanation of their apparent contradiction of provided by…

    Which of the following, if true, provides the most logical completion of the passage below?

    九、应用:

    这类题主要考查我们将一个论点的指导性原则用于另一论点的能力,这类题可能性用如下措词:

    Which of the following parallels the method of argumentation above?

    The argument above is most like which of the following?

    Which of the following suffers from a flaw that, in its logical aspects, is most like the difficulty described above?

    Which of the following identifies a flaw in the speaker’s reasoning?

    十、技法:

    这类题主要考查我们识别论点的结构方法或技法的能力,这类题可能用如下措词:

    The author’s point is made primarily by…

    The labor negotiator minimizes his differences with management by…

    The passage above criticizes the authorities by…

    十一、划线句子作用:

    这类题主要考查我们论点构建中的某句话对结论或前提是否起作用或起什么作用的能力。

  逻辑推理考题由段落(图表)、问题、五个选项构成,做题思维的第一重点是明晰问题目的。根据上面所列出的问题目的的类型,结合GRE、GMAT和LSAT中各类问法的考查频率,针对中国考生的思维特点,作者将考题分为假设、支持、反对、评价、归纳(包括推断、结论、中心思想等)、解释、逻辑应用与技法(包括Flaw、应用、技法、划线句子作用等)七大类。当然,我们读完本书后将会发现,在很多情况下,假设、支持、反对与评价都是让你从下面的五个选项中选择一个答案,放到上面的段落中,以达到问题目的的要求。边四类考题在解题思维方法上的共性都是“自下而上”,并且段落所面临的推理只是有待评价的推理;有时,假设题的解题思路与推断题的解题思路完全一样;有时,完成段落题有两个答案方向,一种答案方向是对段落推理的解释(可归入解释题型),另一种答案方向是从段落推理中得出的结论(可归入归纳题型)。因此,我们不应仅仅拘泥于上述七种分类,在对待问题目的类型上,“运用之妙,存乎一心”,切不可胶柱鼓瑟,生硬地对号入座。(陈向东)



 
发布日期: [2004-2-7 19:00:13]
作者:美佳学校收集整理
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